The Paraguayan authorities was extraordinarily protectionist, by no means accepted loans from overseas, and employed excessive tariffs towards the importation of overseas products. López had recklessly dropped his policy of neutrality with out determining where his allegiances lay. He allowed controversies and boundary disputes with Brazil and Argentina to smolder. The two regional giants had tolerated Paraguayan independence, partly as a result of Paraguay served to check the expansionist tendencies of each opponents.
Foreign relations began to extend in significance underneath López, who retained Paraguay’s conventional distrust of the surrounding states, but lacked Francia’s diplomatic skills. With Brazilian encouragement, López dropped Francia’s policy of neutrality and started meddling in Argentine politics. Using the slogan “Independence or Death”, López declared struggle towards Rosas in 1845 to help what was ultimately an unsuccessful revolt in the Argentine province of Corrientes.
Under Francia, the state acquired about 1,000 slaves when it confiscated property from the elite. López did not free these slaves; instead, he enacted the 1842 Law of the Free Womb, which ended the slave commerce and assured that the children of slaves would be free at age twenty-5. The new legislation served only to increase the slave population and depress slave costs because the slave birth charges soared. Despite his greed, Paraguay prospered underneath El Excelentísimo , as López was recognized. Under López, Paraguay’s population elevated from about 220,000 in 1840 to about four hundred,000 in 1860.
His 1853 journey to Europe to buy arms was probably crucial expertise of his life. In Paris, Solano López admired the trimmings and pretensions of the French empire of Napoleon III. He fell in love with an Irish woman, Elisa Alicia Lynch, whom he made his lover. “La Lynch”, as she grew to become identified in Paraguay, was a robust-willed, charming, witty, intelligent lady who turned a person of monumental influence. Lynch’s Parisian manners soon made her a trendsetter within the Paraguayan capital, and she or he made enemies as shortly as she made associates.
She grew to become the largest landowner in Paraguay after Solano López transferred most of Paraguay and portions of Brazil into her name during the struggle. She buried Solano López along with her personal hands after the last battle in 1870 and died penniless some years later in Europe.
This invasion set the stage for the May 1865 signing by Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay of the Treaty of the Triple Alliance. Under the treaty, these nations vowed to destroy Solano López’s government. When Argentina refused Solano López’s request for permission for his military to cross Argentine territory to attack the Brazilian province of Río Grande do Sul, Solano López had himself declared a Marshal, and began a struggle towards Argentina.
In early 1864 López warned Brazil against intervening in Uruguay’s inner conflict. On November 12, 1864 Lopez ordered the seizure of a Brazilian warship in the Paraguayan territorial waters. López adopted this with an invasion of the Mato Grosso province of Brazil, in March 1865, an motion that proved to be certainly one of Paraguay’s few successes during the struggle.
Regarding Argentina as a potential menace to Paraguay, he shifted his international coverage towards Brazil by rapidly recognizing Brazilian independence in 1822. This move, however, resulted in no particular favors for the Brazilians from Francia, who was also on good, if limited, terms with Juan Manuel Rosas, the Argentine governor.
However, sympathetic Paraguayan nationalists and foreign revisionist historians have portrayed Solano López as a patriot who resisted to his last breath Argentine and Brazilian designs on Paraguay. Since the 1930s, Paraguayans have regarded Solano López as the nation’s foremost hero. Solano López had a pampered childhood; his father raised him to inherit his mantle and made him a brigadier common on the age of eighteen.
Although Britain and France prevented him from shifting against Paraguay, Rosas established a trade embargo on Paraguayan items. Despite being de facto independent since 1811 and having proclaimed a Republic in 1813, Paraguay formally declared independence solely on November 25, 1842 and in 1844 adopted a brand new Constitution that changed the Constitution of 1813. Based on this, Paraguay started paraguayan women to gain official international recognition. Settlers had brought slaves to work as home servants, but were usually lenient about their bondage. Conditions worsened after 1700, however, with the importation of about 50,000 African slaves to be used as agricultural employees.
Both had been satisfied if the opposite couldn’t dominate Paraguayan affairs. At the same time, a Paraguay that was antagonistic to both Brazil and Argentina would give these countries a reason for uniting. After Rosas fell in 1852, López signed a treaty with Buenos Aires that acknowledged Paraguay’s independence, although the porteños by no means ratified it. In the identical year, López signed treaties of friendship, commerce, and navigation with France and the United States. On October 1, 1853, the US warship USSWater Witch arrived on a visit in Asunción.
After Francia’s demise on September 20, 1840, a political confusion erupted, as a result of El Supremo, now El Difunto , had left no successor. After a number of days, a junta led by Manuel Antonio Ortiz emerged, freed some political prisoners, arrested Francia’s secretary Polycarpo Patiño, and soon proved itself ineffectual at governing. On January 22, 1841, Ortiz was overthrown by Juan José Medina who in flip was overthrown on February 9 in a coup led by Mariano Roque Alonzo. Francia’s biggest accomplishment, the preservation of Paraguayan independence, resulted instantly from a non-interventionist overseas coverage.